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It has been a very widely applied spreadsheet for these platforms, especially since version 5 in , and it has replaced Lotus as the industry standard for spreadsheets. Excel forms part of the Microsoft Office suite of software. Microsoft Excel has the basic features of all spreadsheets,  using a grid of cells arranged in numbered rows and letter-named columns to organize data manipulations like arithmetic operations.
It has a battery of supplied functions to answer statistical, engineering and financial needs. In addition, it can display data as line graphs, histograms and charts, and with a very limited three-dimensional graphical display. It allows sectioning of data to view its dependencies on various factors for different perspectives using pivot tables and the scenario manager.
It also has a variety of interactive features allowing user interfaces that can completely hide the spreadsheet from the user, so the spreadsheet presents itself as a so-called application , or decision support system DSS , via a custom-designed user interface, for example, a stock analyzer,  or in general, as a design tool that asks the user questions and provides answers and reports. Excel was not designed to be used as a database.
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Microsoft allows for a number of optional command-line switches to control the manner in which Excel starts. Excel has functions. Microsoft classifies these functions in 14 categories. Of the current functions, may be called from VBA as methods of the object "WorksheetFunction"  and 44 have the same names as VBA functions. Programming with VBA allows spreadsheet manipulation that is awkward or impossible with standard spreadsheet techniques. Programmers may write code directly using the Visual Basic Editor VBE , which includes a window for writing code, debugging code, and code module organization environment.
The user can implement numerical methods as well as automating tasks such as formatting or data organization in VBA  and guide the calculation using any desired intermediate results reported back to the spreadsheet.
VBA was restored in the next version, Mac Excel ,  although the build lacks support for ActiveX objects, impacting some high level developer tools. These actions can then be repeated automatically by running the macro.
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The macros can also be linked to different trigger types like keyboard shortcuts,  a command button or a graphic. The actions in the macro can be executed from these trigger types or from the generic toolbar options. Certain features such as loop functions and screen prompt by their own properties, and some graphical display items, cannot be recorded but must be entered into the VBA module directly by the programmer.
Advanced users can employ user prompts to create an interactive program, or react to events such as sheets being loaded or changed. Macro Recorded code may not be compatible with Excel versions. Some code that is used in Excel cannot be used in Excel Making a Macro that changes the cell colours and making changes to other aspects of cells may not be backward compatible. VBA code interacts with the spreadsheet through the Excel Object Model ,  a vocabulary identifying spreadsheet objects, and a set of supplied functions or methods that enable reading and writing to the spreadsheet and interaction with its users for example, through custom toolbars or command bars and message boxes.
User-created VBA subroutines execute these actions and operate like macros generated using the macro recorder, but are more flexible and efficient. From its first version Excel supported end user programming of macros automation of repetitive tasks and user defined functions extension of Excel's built-in function library.
In early versions of Excel these programs were written in a macro language whose statements had formula syntax and resided in the cells of special purpose macro sheets stored with file extension. XLM in Windows. XLM was the default macro language for Excel through Excel 4.
After version 5. All versions of Excel, including Excel are capable of running an XLM macro, though Microsoft discourages their use. Excel supports charts , graphs , or histograms generated from specified groups of cells. The generated graphic component can either be embedded within the current sheet, or added as a separate object.
These displays are dynamically updated if the content of cells change. For example, suppose that the important design requirements are displayed visually; then, in response to a user's change in trial values for parameters, the curves describing the design change shape, and their points of intersection shift, assisting the selection of the best design. Additional features are available using add-ins. Several are provided with Excel, including:. Versions of Excel up to 7. Versions 8. Version Microsoft Excel up until version used a proprietary binary file format called Excel Binary File Format.
XLS as its primary format. Although supporting and encouraging the use of new XML-based formats as replacements, Excel remained backwards-compatible with the traditional, binary formats. Support for some older file formats was removed in Excel Though the intended file extension for this format is. This feature is widely used by third-party applications e. The following example will be correctly opened by Excel if saved either as Book1. Microsoft Excel , along with the other products in the Microsoft Office suite, introduced new file formats.
The first of these. Windows applications such as Microsoft Access and Microsoft Word , as well as Excel can communicate with each other and use each other's capabilities. The most common are Dynamic Data Exchange : although strongly deprecated by Microsoft, this is a common method to send data between applications running on Windows, with official MS publications referring to it as "the protocol from hell". It is very common in financial markets, being used to connect to important financial data services such as Bloomberg and Reuters. OLE Object Linking and Embedding allows a Windows application to control another to enable it to format or calculate data.
This may take on the form of "embedding" where an application uses another to handle a task that it is more suited to, for example a PowerPoint presentation may be embedded in an Excel spreadsheet or vice versa. Excel users can access external data sources via Microsoft Office features such as for example. Excel can accept data in real time through several programming interfaces, which allow it to communicate with many data sources such as Bloomberg and Reuters through addins such as Power Plus Pro.
Programmers have produced APIs to open Excel spreadsheets in a variety of applications and environments other than Microsoft Excel. These include opening Excel documents on the web using either ActiveX controls, or plugins like the Adobe Flash Player. ExcelPackage is another open-source project that provides server-side generation of Microsoft Excel spreadsheets.
Excel Services is a current. NET developer tool that can enhance Excel's capabilities.
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Excel spreadsheets can be accessed from Python with xlrd and openpyxl. All passwords except password to open a document can be removed instantly regardless of Microsoft Excel version used to create the document. These types of passwords are used primarily for shared work on a document. Such password-protected documents are not encrypted , and a data sources from a set password is saved in a document's header.
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The only type of password that can prevent a trespasser from gaining access to a document is password to open a document. The cryptographic strength of this kind of protection depends strongly on the Microsoft Excel version that was used to create the document. In Microsoft Excel 95 and earlier versions, password to open is converted to a bit key that can be instantly cracked. As regards services which use rainbow tables e. Password-Find , it takes up to several seconds to remove protection. In addition, password-cracking programs can brute-force attack passwords at a rate of hundreds of thousands of passwords a second, which not only lets them decrypt a document, but also find the original password.
Due to the CSP, an Excel file can't be decrypted, and thus the password to open can't be removed, though the brute-force attack speed remains quite high. The situation changed fundamentally in Excel , where the modern AES algorithm with a key of bits started being used for decryption, and a 50,fold use of the hash function SHA1 reduced the speed of brute-force attacks down to hundreds of passwords per second. In Excel , the strength of the protection by the default was increased two times due to the use of a ,fold SHA1 to convert a password to a key. Microsoft Excel Viewer was a freeware program for viewing and printing spreadsheet documents created by Excel.
Excel Viewer is similar to Microsoft Word Viewer in functionality. There is not a current version for the Mac. In addition to issues with spreadsheets in general, other problems specific to Excel include numeric precision, misleading statistics functions, mod function errors, date limitations and more. Despite the use of figure precision, Excel can display many more figures up to thirty upon user request.
But the displayed figures are not those actually used in its computations, and so, for example, the difference of two numbers may differ from the difference of their displayed values. Although such departures are usually beyond the 15th decimal, exceptions do occur, especially for very large or very small numbers. Serious errors can occur if decisions are made based upon automated comparisons of numbers for example, using the Excel If function , as equality of two numbers can be unpredictable.
Although this number has a decimal representation that is an infinite string of ones, Excel displays only the leading 15 figures. In the second line, the number one is added to the fraction, and again Excel displays only 15 figures. In the third line, one is subtracted from the sum using Excel.
Because the sum in the second line has only eleven 1's after the decimal, the difference when 1 is subtracted from this displayed value is three 0's followed by a string of eleven 1's.